Friday, May 9, 2008

But the logo says I'm secure!

Russ McRee at posted a fun little video to demonstrate just how effective McAfee's "Hacker Safe" ScanAlert really is. These sites have some really basic XSS vulnerabilities, so either the scans aren't working, the companies aren't bothering to fix known weaknesses, or it's a little bit of both. If all they care about is sticking a logo on their site, they might as well invest in Scanless PCI.

Saturday, May 3, 2008

Fun with DCE-RPC Fuzzing

I recently finished working on an interesting project that was a mix of architecture assessment and penetration testing.  One of our key tasks was to analyze the effectiveness of a firewall that they had configured to perform layer 7 inspection of Windows DCE-RPC traffic.  The firewall was designed to enforce a white-list of allowed RPC services (based on UUID) and deny all others.  It also did some fancy dynamic port management, automatically opening/closing high-number ports for permitted RPC connections.  
Our pen-tests usually don't entail a significant amount of packet crafting and manipulation, since we're more typically working at the OS or application level.  So testing this firewall's RPC filtering mechanism was a fun challenge.  We ended up relying on two tools to perform fuzzing attacks, primarily manipulating the UUID and function call fields in the RPC packets:
  • Impacket - A collection of Python classes developed by the Core Security guys.  Includes support for DCE-RPC v4 and v5.  I used this to write up a number of scripts for each test case.
  • SPIKE - Popular fuzz testing framework based in C - it includes a pre-built msrpc fuzzing tool.
I initially wanted to use Scapy, but it unfortunately doesn't have native support for DCE-RPC and I didn't have the time (or skill) to build out the protocol.  Of course, we also heavily relied upon Wireshark since it decodes DCE-RPC v5 very nicely, and Metasploit to launch a few known RPC exploits.
After extensive brainstorming and failed attempts with my colleague, we were able to trick the firewall into opening RPC ports by spoofing valid RPC sessions - but only for white-listed UUIDs.  I was more interested in getting the firewall to choke on malformed endpoint mapper requests or other RPC packets, and possibly create denial of service conditions (or get packets with disallowed UUIDs past the filtering mechanism).  No luck there, mostly due to how the RPC endpoint mapper and firewall work together to dynamically open ports.  The specific port opened for an RPC service is dictated by the endpoint mapper response and cannot be defined by the initial request - which makes sense, the client shouldn't have any say in what port the server chooses for the service. 
Despite failing to completely own the firewall, designing and implementing our testing approach was a great experience - especially coding the Python test scripts with Impacket.

Thursday, November 15, 2007

Hotel TVs and stupid security controls

A quickie while I'm still logged on:

Ever come across a web application that only performs input validation via JavaScript? It'll pop up and stop you from submitting a form with illegal characters, but it's obviously just a client-side control, and therefore trivial to bypass using a proxy tool like Paros or Burp. Stupid, but I guess it stops the dumbest of script kiddies.

Earlier this week, I decided to plug my iPod into my hotel TV's A/V input jacks so I could watch a movie on the larger screen. No-brainer, right? They even have the inputs on the front to make it really easy. Then I noticed that I couldn't change video inputs on the stupid thing - no buttons on the remote, no menus, nothing. That's because instead of a normal remote, the TV had a special one programmed for the OnCommand pay-per-view service, and they conveniently left out the input selection function.

The OnCommand unit is a small box that sits in-line between the coax cable running from the wall to the TV. It has a RJ-11 cable that plugs into the television and intercepts the IR signals from the special remote, allowing you to control and purchase "premium content". I did some research and found that a few people have messed with these older hotel PPV systems; in fact, there's an article from 2005 in Wired about how easily they can be hacked. Basically, you can do plenty if you have a USB TV tuner (and/or an expensive, commercial "master remote" that the hotels use to program these things).

The basic premise is that the PPV movies are broadcast in the clear over regular channels, but until you pay for them the OnCommand box prevents your remote and TV from tuning to them. In other words, if you can bypass the IR control you can tune to whatever you want. It's "fake" security, just like the JavaScript input validation. (That was a hell of a long way to go for a bad analogy).

I didn't care about free PPV, I don't want to steal anything - I just wanted to enable the damn video jacks. Acting on a stupid impulse, I bought an $8 universal remote and programmed in the codes for the TV's manufacturer. With a press of the "menu" button I had access to all of the TV settings, including adjusting the tuning and channel locks, and most importantly, switching video inputs. It was that easy.

What a stupid design - just let people use the damn inputs, you'll still sell plenty of porn. In the meantime, I guess I'll always pack this universal remote when I travel. Wow, what a nerd I am.

Thursday, August 23, 2007

Pass the hash, NTLM style

Way back in 1997, a Windows exploit named "NT Pass the Hash" was posted on Bugtraq. This Unix-based tool was a modified SMB client that lets you use captured LanMan hashes, without having to decrypt them first.

After a mere ten years, someone has finally modernized this concept into a much more potent attack. Core Security has released Pass-The-Hash Toolkit, which runs on Windows and works with NTLM hashes. It's comprised of two key modules:
  • IAM.EXE - This tool "injects" another user's NTLM credentials into your current Windows logon session, given their username, Windows domain, and NTLM hash. You can then use the 'net' tools or any other Windows software that authenticates via NTLM, all under the assumed privileges of the compromised user account.
  • WHOSTHERE.EXE - Lists the usernames and NTLM hashes of all users logged on to a system.
No password cracking required! So if you own other systems on the network, you can just run whosthere.exe on them until you snag a domain admin's hashes. Or you could use a man-in-the middle attack, like the WPAD proxy exploit. As I discussed a few posts ago, the Metasploit guys covered several methods for grabbing NTLM hashes in their Tactical Exploitation presentation at BlackHat.

Wednesday, August 15, 2007

Out-of-band Oracle SQL injection with HTTP Requests

I spent most of last week performing a web application assessment in the middle of nowhere, Alabama. After the mad fun at BlackHat and several weeks of unpleasant documentation work preceding it, it was a nice change to spend five peaceful days completely focused on testing an interesting system.

This was an internal application, so I wasn't surprised to find that it was vulnerable to SQL injection in several areas. However, in-band injection attacks weren't working for the application I was testing - I couldn't use UNION SELECTs, for example, to merge my query results with data rendered in the browser. So I had to leverage an out-of-band technique for retrieving data through SQL injection: Oracle's UTL_HTTP.REQUEST function. David Litchfield mentioned this approach almost two years ago in Data-mining with SQL Injection and Inference, but I never had the need to use it "in the wild" until now.

UTL_HTTP is a built-in Oracle SQL function that issues HTTP requests. The syntax is pretty simple: 

returns the first 2000 bytes from the provided URL. But the clever bit is that you can concatenate the URL with another SQL statement, the results of which will become part of the request.

For example, consider the following SQL:


The SELECT statement returns the value "SYS" - the first user in the DBA_USERS table. The HTTP request issued by the database is therefore for the URL "". In's HTTP access log, the request would look like: - - [08/Aug/2007:10:02:40 +0000] "GET /SYS HTTP/1.1" 404 0 - -
(assuming is our target DB server)

So as an attacker, you simply need to run a web server and point the UTL_HTTP.REQUESTs to your own IP address. You can then view the result of each SQL injection in your server logs. If in Windows, I like to use SHTTPD as it is lightweight and simple to turn on and off.

The biggest limitation to this approach is that you can only query for one row at a time - you'll get an error message if your statement returns multiple rows. (That is due to the UTL_HTTP.RQUEST function itself, not the web server end). But it is still a lot more efficient then using blind SQL injection to brute force one character of a response at a time. Oracle will also throw an error if it can't reach your web server, which may be the case depending on network controls between yourself and the database.  Experiment with running on different ports.

There are probably a few things you could do to make the attack more elegant, like setting up a CGI script on your server to better collect and parse the calls from the database. You could also create and inject a PL/SQL function that concatenates results from multiple rows to get around the single-row limitation. I needed a quick and dirty solution to get a few key database records, so I didn't bother venturing beyond the basics for this test.

Outbound HTTP requests originating from a database server should look suspicious, but I think the attack is obscure enough to slip by most admins.